Abdullah tells the story of when a young Anbari wanted to buy pigeons. His father told him he had to ask the local imam if keeping pigeons was sound from an Islamic-law standpoint. In some Arab countries, testimony from pigeon keepers is inadmissible in court; Arabs associate them with dishonesty, as their profession is thought to involve stealing pigeons owned by others and then lying about it.
Anbari studied Sharia after he completed elementary school, at an institute in the northern Iraqi city of Tal Afar. He graduated from the University of Baghdad in with a degree in Islamic studies. After graduation, he joined the Iraqi army, served for seven years, and fought in the Iran-Iraq war. One day, a rich citizen of the town invited ghajars —an ethnic group similar to the Roma—to pitch a tent and throw a party with music and dancing. Anbari was enraged by the news; the party seemed to him profoundly sacrilegious. Anbari considered killing the ghajars , but he had no gun.
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He then asked one of his students to bring him gasoline, with the idea that he would burn the ghajars alive inside their tent. Ultimately, he simply delivered a sermon against the ghajars and the planned, profane celebration.
Under intense pressure, the rich sponsor sent the ghajars away. But the incident left Anbari thinking: There is something wrong with a government that would even consider allowing such an event to take place.
The Story of the Man in the Iron Mask | Ancient Origins
He used the pulpit to attack Shiites and Sufis as deviant sects. Later that decade, he associated himself with Kurdish jihadist organizations in the north. The biography explains that he was influenced by jihadist materials, including audio sermons, coming out of Afghanistan and Chechnya.
He developed relationships with three men who later became notable jihadists. The success of the attacks was, of course, one factor behind the preinvasion spike—but it was not the only one. Seven months before the attacks, the government mobilized Iraqis to join the volunteer-based Jerusalem Army, which had a stated mission of expelling Jews from the holy city. Anbari was swept along by these trends. Thus, a man who had never embraced moderation rejected the concept as totally anathema to Islam.
During this period, Anbari moved back and forth from central to northern Iraq to facilitate jihadist activities. By contrast, it would take another year for Zarqawi to embrace such extreme sectarianism. He was influenced by what was happening around him in Iraq.
Anbari also had a direct role in the transformation of al-Qaeda in Iraq from a foreign-dominated force into one run by Iraqis.
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When Anbari returned, he presented a plan to merge al-Qaeda in Iraq with other, local forces to establish the Mujahideen Shura Council in January Anbari headed the council, using his new nom de guerre, Abdullah Rasheed al-Baghdadi. Anbari was arrested by U. Although Anbari remained in custody until March , he stayed involved in the jihadist story by recruiting and indoctrinating fellow inmates.
The two formed independent relationships with key members of Jabhat al-Nusra, and then Baghdadi unilaterally announced a merger between the two branches. Anbari was also tasked with communicating with al-Qaeda, under the nom de guerre Abu Suhayb al-Iraqi, to resolve the jihadist infighting.
For Syrian rebels, Anbari was the face of ISIS as he met and negotiated with them from late through the summer of Indeed, he became the ideologue in chief, in which capacity he trained senior clerics, instructed members to draft religious texts, and issued fatwas about major issues affecting the caliphate. In March , on one of those frequent trips, Anbari was killed near the Syrian city of Shaddadi, along the Syrian-Iraqi border.
According to the biography, American soldiers attempted to capture him in a raid but he blew himself up using a suicide belt. Anbari outlived Zarqawi by 10 years, and out-influenced him. As the climate deteriorated in Europe around 10 million years ago, these apes either died out or migrated south, reinvading the African continent and giving rise to the lineages of the gorilla, chimpanzee, and, ultimately, the human. Presenting startling new insights about our fossil ape ancestors, The Real Planet of the Apes is a book that fundamentally alters our understanding of human origins.
The Story of the Man in the Iron Mask
Begun is professor of anthropology at the University of Toronto. He lives in Toronto. Many of our ebooks are available through library electronic resources including these platforms:. Home The Real Planet of the Apes. Add to Cart. More about this book. One of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles for